Jet Fuel JP-54
Jet fuels and diesel fuel marine (DFM) are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons produced by distillation of crude oil. They contain hundreds of hydrocarbons as well as many additives. The actual composition of any given fuel varies depending upon source of the crude oil, refinery processes, and product specifications. The hydrocarbons in jet and diesel fuels are less volatile than those in gasoline. JP-5 is a high-flash-point jet fuel developed by the Navy. JP-5 is a specifically refined type of kerosene consisting of C9-C16 paraffins (53%), cycloparaffins (31%), aromatics (16%), and olefins (0.5%). The aromatic content of JP-5 might vary from less than 2.5% to greater than 22% by volume. The benzene content of JP-5 is typically less than 0.02% (Dollarhide, 1992), and a small amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons might be present in JP-5. Because water contamination in aviation fuels is a serious problem, a fuel-system icing inhibitor is added to the fuel to eliminate the formation of ice in aircraft systems. JP-8 is similar to commercial jet A-1 fuel. JP-8 was developed for the Air Force to provide a safe kerosene-based jet fuel that would still have adequate reliability and an acceptable freezing point.